멀티미디어 시스템 – Chapter 1. Multimedia introduction – Homework : MPEG audio and video standard

standard

first homework is an investigation MPEG audio and video standard of multimedia system.

첫 번째 과제는 멀티미디어 표준에 대하여 조사하는 것이다.

multimedia standard : MPEG

  1. MPEG-1
  2. MPEG-2
  3. MPEG-3
  4. MPEG-4
  5. MPEG-4 AVC
  6. MPEG-7
  7. MPEG-21

1) MPEG-1 ( audio standard )

  • MPEG-1 is a standard for lossy compression of video and audio. It is designed to compress VHS-quality raw digital video and CD audio down to 1.5 Mbit/s (26:1 and 6:1 compression ratios respectively) without excessive quality loss, making video CDs, digital cable/satellite TV and digital audio broadcasting.
  • Today, MPEG-1 has become the most widely compatible lossy audio/video format in the world, and is used in a large number of products and technologies. Perhaps the best-known part of the MPEG-1 standard is the MP3 audio format it introduced.
  • The MPEG-1 standard is published as ISO/IEC 11172 – Information technology—Coding of moving pictures and associated audio for digital storage media at up to about 1.5 Mbit/s.
    • Systems (storage and synchronization of video, audio, and other data together)
    • Video (compressed video content)
    • Audio (compressed audio content)
    • Conformance testing (testing the correctness of implementations of the standard)
    • Reference software (example software showing how to encode and decode according to the standard)

2) MPEG-2

  • MPEG-2 (a.k.a. H.222/H.262 as defined by the ITU) is a standard for "the generic coding of moving pictures and ISO/IEC 13818 MPEG-2 at the ISO Store. It describes a combination of lossy video compression and lossy audio data compression methods, which permit storage and transmission of movies using currently available storage media and transmission bandwidth. While MPEG-2 is not as efficient as newer standards such as H.264/AVC and H.265/HEVC, backwards compatibility with existing hardware and software means it is still widely used, for example in over-the-air digital television broadcasting and in the DVD-Video standard.
  • MPEG-2 is widely used as the format of digital television signals that are broadcast by terrestrial (over-the-air), cable, and direct broadcast satellite TV systems. It also specifies the format of movies and other programs that are distributed on DVD and similar discs. TV stations, TV receivers, DVD players, and other equipment are often designed to this standard.

3)  MPEG-3

  • MPEG-3 is the designation for a group of audio and video coding standards agreed upon by the Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) designed to handle HDTV signals at 1080p in the range of 20 to 40 megabits per second. MPEG-3 was launched as an effort to address the need of an HDTV standard while work on MPEG-2 was underway, but it was soon discovered that MPEG-2, at high data rates, would accommodate HDTV. Thus, in 1992 HDTV was included as a separate profile in the MPEG-2 standard and MPEG-3 was rolled into MPEG-2

4)  MPEG-4

  • MPEG-4 is a method of defining compression of audio and visual (AV) digital data. Uses of MPEG-4 include compression of AV data for web (streaming media) and CD distribution, voice (telephone, videophone) and broadcast television applications.
  • MPEG-4 absorbs many of the features of MPEG-1 and MPEG-2 and other related standards, adding new features such as (extended) VRML support for 3D rendering, object-oriented composite files (including audio, video and VRML objects), support for externally specified Digital Rights Management and various types of interactivity.
  • MPEG-4 is still an evolving standard and is divided into a number of parts. Companies promoting MPEG-4 compatibility do not always clearly state which "part" level compatibility they are referring to.
  • Most of the features included in MPEG-4 are left to individual developers to decide whether or not to implement. This means that there are probably no complete implementations of the entire MPEG-4 set of standards. To deal with this, the standard includes the concept of "profiles" and "levels", allowing a specific set of capabilities to be defined in a manner appropriate for a subset of applications.
  • Initially, MPEG-4 was aimed primarily at low bit-rate video communications; however, its scope as a multimedia coding standard was later expanded. MPEG-4 is efficient across a variety of bit-rates ranging from a few kilobits per second to tens of megabits per second. MPEG-4 provides the following functions:
    • Improved coding efficiency over MPEG-2
    • Ability to encode mixed media data (video, audio, speech)
    • Error resilience to enable robust transmission
    • Ability to interact with the audio-visual scene generated at the receiver

5) MPEG-4 AVC

  • 264 or MPEG-4 Part 10, Advanced Video Coding (MPEG-4 AVC) is a block-oriented motion-compensation-based video compression standard. As of 2014 it is one of the most commonly used formats for the recording, compression, and distribution of video content.
  • 264 is perhaps best known as being one of the video encoding standards for Blu-ray Discs; all Blu-ray Disc players must be able to decode H.264. It is also widely used by streaming internet sources, such as videos from Vimeo, YouTube, and the iTunes Store, web software such as the Adobe Flash Player and Microsoft Silverlight, and also various HDTV broadcasts over terrestrial (Advanced Television Systems Committee standards, ISDB-T, DVB-T or DVB-T2), cable (DVB-C), and satellite (DVB-S and DVB-S2).

 

6)  MPEG-7

  • MPEG-7 is a multimedia content description standard. MPEG-7 is formally called Multimedia Content Description Interface. Thus, it is not a standard which deals with the actual encoding of moving pictures and audio, like MPEG-1, MPEG-2 and MPEG-4. It uses XML to store metadata, and can be attached to timecode in order to tag particular events, or synchronise lyrics to a song, for example.
  • It was designed to standardize:
    • a set of Description Schemes ("DS") and Descriptors ("D")
    • a language to specify these schemes, called the Description Definition Language ("DDL")
    • a scheme for coding the description
  • The combination of MPEG-4 and MPEG-7 has been sometimes referred to as MPEG-47.

 

7)  MPEG-21

  • The MPEG-21 standard, from the Moving Picture Experts Group, aims at defining an open framework for multimedia applications.
  • MPEG-21 is based on two essential concepts:
    • definition of a Digital Item (a fundamental unit of distribution and transaction)
    • users interacting with Digital Items
  • Digital Items can be considered the kernel of the Multimedia Framework and the users can be considered as who interacts with them inside the Multimedia Framework. At its most basic level, MPEG-21 provides a framework in which one user interacts with another one, and the object of that interaction is a Digital Item. Due to that, we could say that the main objective of the MPEG-21 is to define the technology needed to support users to exchange, access, consume, trade or manipulate Digital Items in an efficient and transparent way.
  • MPEG-21 Part 9: File Format defined the storage of an MPEG-21 Digital Item in a file format based on the ISO base media file format, with some or all of Digital Item's ancillary data (such as movies, images or other non-XML data) within the same file. It uses filename extensions .m21 or .mp21 and MIME type application/mp21.